Birmingham

Status Quo:Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. It is the most populous British city outside London with a population of 1,016,800 (2008 estimate).

As part of the Ultra Low Carbon Vehicle Demonstrator Programme an electro vehicle fleet (smart model) is tested in Birmingham since June 2010 under real life conditions.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 14 refuelling stations of biodiesel (3 refuelling stations), methanol (1 refuelling station), and flexifuel E85 (1 refuelling station) and GPL (19 refuelling stations) in the Birmingham region. Furthermore, there is one hydrogen refuelling station at the University of Birmingham. The station services five hydrogen powered Nissan X-Trail FC vehicles.

Regional Information Sources

www.birmingham.gov.uk

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham

Leicestershire

Status Quo:Leicestershire

Leicestershire is a landlocked county in central England. It takes its name from the heavily populated City of Leicester, traditionally its administrative centre,

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 9 refuelling stations of biodiesel (1 refuelling station), methanol (1 refuelling station), and flexifuel E85 (1 refuelling station) and GPL (6 refuelling stations) in Leicestershire. Furthermore, there is one hydrogen public refuelling station capable of refuelling 3 cars in quick succession. The station services ENV bikes, London taxi and other vehicles that use intelligent energy fuel cells, plus Ford Transit H2-ICE vans converted by Roush.

Regional Information Sources

www.leics.gov.uk

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leicestershire

London

Status Quo:London

London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom (UK). It is Britain's largest and most populous metropolitan area. London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the M25 motorway the busiest stretch in the country. The average speed of a car in the rush hour is 10.6 mph. According to latest available figure of London transport statistics in 2006, on an average day in London there were just under 28 million journey stages; 39% of these were made by car, 19% by bus or tram, 10% by Underground, 8% by rail, 2% by cycle and 20% were on foot.

There was a road network in 2006 of about 14,926 km whereof 60 km motorways, 1,720 km principal road and 13,146 minor roads. All motor vehicles had a volume of 33 bill. vehicle kilometres in 2006/2007 whereof 26,398 mill km from cars and taxis, 823 mill km from two wheel vehicles, 621 mill km from buses and coaches, 4,126 mill km from light vans as well as 1,073 mill km from goods vehicles. In 2006 there where registered 2.480 cars in London whereof 5% from companies.

According to company figures the Transport for London (TfL) operates some 8,200 buses throughout London. The city has made significant moves towards the introduction of low carbon buses and has set the following strategy: December 2008 60 hybrid buses, March 2010 100 hybrid buses, March 2011 100 hybrid buses, March 2012 100 hybrid buses. From 2012 all bus purchases will be hybrid technology.

As part of the Ultra Low Carbon Vehicle Demonstrator Programme an electro vehicle fleet (smart model) is tested since June 2010 in London under real life conditions.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 78 refuelling stations of biodiesel, (5 refuelling stations), GPL (70 refuelling stations), methanol (3 refuelling stations) in the London area. No refuelling station for hydrogen and flexifuel E85 are listed. As specific infrastructure for electro vehicles including public accessible recharging points are available in the Westminster region.

Regional/Local Support Instruments for Clean Vehicles

A congestion charge was introduced in central London on 17 February 2003. The main aim of the scheme was to reduce traffic congestion in and around the charging zone. Revenues would be used to improve transport in London more generally. Vehicles entering central London, or those parked on the capital's streets, on weekdays during the day, were subject to a £ 5 daily charge, increased to £ 8 in July 2005, which can be paid electronically. The charging zone covers 22 km2 in the heart of the capital within the inner ring road. Certain vehicles, e.g. taxis, motorcycles, buses and alternatively-fuelled vehicles are exempt, while some users, e.g. residents and the disabled, benefit from discounts. A recent review of the charging system (Transport for London, 2004) found that congestion within the charging zone has reduced by 30% and that the volume of traffic has reduced by 15%.

Bus services in the zone have improved and public transport, more generally, has coped with the displaced car users, although some users dispute this. The evidence suggests that the charge has had little direct negative impact on business, but has had benefits in terms of environmental amenity and reduced traffic emissions. Some vehicles are qualified for a 100 per cent congestion charge discount, i.e. alternative fuel vehicles, electrically propelled vehicles, vehicles with nine or more seats, motor tricycles and roadside recovery vehicles. People driving into central London every day can save approximately £1,600 per year by driving a car with reduced emissions (based on 200 visits per annum).

Greater London has a Low Emissions Zone in place from the 4th February 2008. The emissions standards are:

1. From 4th February 2008, a standard of Euro 3 for particulate matter (PM) for lorries over 12 tonnes Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW), and buses and coaches over 5 tonnes GVW.

2. From July 2008, a standard of Euro 3 for PM for lorries between 3.5 and 12 tonnes, buses and coaches

3. From January 2012, a standard of Euro 3 for PM for larger vans and minibuses. The date is not yet fully confirmed, but set out in the London Mayor's draft Air Quality Strategy, which is subject to consultation.

4. From January 2012, a standard of Euro 4 for PM for lorries over 3.5 tonnes GVW, buses and coaches over 5 tonnes GVW.

London Taxi Emissions Abatement Register: The London taxi fleet is estimated to be responsible for 12 per cent of the oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and 24 per cent of the particulate matter (PM10) from road transport emissions in central London. Nitrogen oxides and PM10 are significant local air pollutants in London. The Mayor of London's emissions strategy for licensed London taxis requires all vehicles to be of Euro 3 emissions standard or better by 30th June 2008.

The Public Carriage Office is implementing the strategy in two phases:

  • Phase 1 affects LTi taxis which currently meet pre-Euro and Euro 1 emissions standards being presented for annual licensing between 1st July 2006 and 30th June 2007.
  • Phase 2 affects all LTi taxis which currently meet Euro 2 emissions standards and all metrocabs which currently meet pre-Euro, Euro 1 or Euro 2 standards being presented for annual licensing between 1st July 2007 and 30th June 2008.

It is expected that with this measure taxis retrofitted with emissions reduction equipment will reduce their NOX emissions by at least 46 per cent. Their particulate matter emissions will be reduced by at least 34 per cent.

Regional Information Sources

www.london.gov.uk

www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6733.aspx

Information on LEZ: www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/default.aspx

Dokument: London Taxis: List of Approved Emissions System Suppliers

www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/congestioncharging/6713.aspx

London Travel Report 2007

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London

Norwich

Status Quo:Norwich

It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. Norwich is the main employment centre in East Anglia and attracts over 250,000 vehicle trips into the City each day.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 6 refuelling stations of flexifuel E85 (4 refuelling stations), GPL (2 refuelling stations) in the Norwich region. No refuelling station for hydrogen, methanol, and biodiesel are listed.

Regional/Local Support Instruments for Clean Vehicles

Over the past 10 years there has been a programme of designating for residential areas as Controlled Parking Zones (CPZ). Within these zones parking is restricted to residents and their visitors within the city centre and residents, their visitors and businesses within the zones outside the city centre with the use of permits. Originally, there was a uniform tariff of £16 p.a. across all vehicle types of the group allowed to park in the CPZ. In the recent past the tariff schema was changed in order to influence the choice of vehicle that residents choose to own through a pricing and permit structure by providing benefits to those who choose smaller, more fuel efficient or alternative fuel vehicles (e.g. electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles):

  • £16 p.a. for small cars (under 3.92m length);
  • £22 p.a. for medium cars (between 3.92 and 4.45m length); and
  • £30 p.a. for large cars (over 4.45m length);
  • £100 p.a. for business permits
  • £22 p.a. for all other permits; and
  • 100% discount for alternative fuel vehicle private cars;

An experience since May 2008 suggests that the new tariffs have attracted little attention and generated few complaints. The main source of complaint has not been the tariffs but a stricter application of rules to prove residency which was also introduced along with the new tariffs following an audit report (SMILE Evaluation Report).

In July 2008 the city has established a low emission zone for local bus services where the registered route of the service includes Castle Meadow, Norwich (minimum standard for access local buses Euro 3(NOx)). Vehicular traffic within the street is limited to buses, taxis, delivery vehicles and the emergency services. Bus companies must comply with an increasing percentage of their fleet. By 1.4.2010 100% for operators based within the LEZ, 50% for operators based outside the LEZ. Local bus services with less than five departures per week from Castle Meadow are exempt.

Regional Information Sources

www.norwich.gov.uk/webapps/atoz/service_page.asp

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwich

Oxford

Status Quo:Oxford

Oxford is a city, and the county town of Oxfordshire, in South East England. The city has a population of about 165,000, with 151,000 living within the district boundary.

As part of the Ultra Low Carbon Vehicle Demonstrator Programme an electro vehicle fleet (E-Mini BMW) is tested since June 2010 in London under real life conditions.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 6 refuelling stations of biodiesel (2 refuelling stations), GPL (3 refuelling stations) and methanol (1 refuelling station) in the Oxford region. No refuelling station for hydrogen and flexifuel E85 are listed.

Regional/Local Support Instruments for Clean Vehicles

The city has established a low emission zone for public transport buses with routes into the city centre (Standards by 01/01/2013 Buses Euro V)

Regional Information Sources

www.oxford.gov.uk

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford

Port Talbot / Wales

Status Quo:Port Talbot / Wales

Port Talbot is an industrial town in South Wales, UK, with a population of 35,633 in 2001.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 4 refuelling stations for GPL in the region. No refuelling station for biodiesel, methanol and flexifuel E85 are listed. One hydrogen refuelling station as part of the University of Glamorgan’s Renewable Hydrogen Research and Demonstration Centre is located here. Various vehicles are serviced including the University’s tribrid minibus.

Regional Information Sources

www.npt.gov.uk

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Port_Talbot

Preston

Status Quo:Preston

Preston is a city and non-metropolitan district in Lancashire, England. Preston has a population of 131,900, and lies at the centre of the wider Preston sub-area, which has a population of 184,836, and the Central Lancashire sub-region, with a population of 335,000.

The city took part in the European funded CIVITAS initiative. At least three different hybrid bus options (suitable for use with 30% biodiesel) are assessed. A preferred vehicle was selected and negotiations/procurement undertaken. Additional funding was sought and a business case was built for the purchase of hybrid buses, biodiesel fuel and fuelling station. Infrastructure works for a biodiesel fuelling station was carried out.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 5 refuelling stations of biodiesel (1 refuelling station) and GPL (4 refuelling stations) in Preston. No refuelling station for methanol, flexifuel E85 and hydrogen.

Regional Information Sources

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_of_Preston,_Lancashire

 

Sheffield

Status Quo:Sheffield

Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire. The population of the City of Sheffield is 534,500 (2008 est.), but the wider Sheffield urban area, which extends beyond the city proper, had a population of 640,720 as of the 2001 census.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 8 refuelling stations of biodiesel (1 refuelling station) and GPL (7 refuelling stations) in the Sheffield region. No refuelling station for methanol and flexifuel E85 are listed.

There is one public accessible hydrogen refuelling station. On site production of electrolytic hydrogen showcasing the H2 production and refuelling capabilities of ITM Power. Bi-fuel Ford Focus (ITM Power), Bi-Fuel Ford Transit (revolve technologies).

Regional/Local Support Instruments for Clean Vehicles

The city has established a low emission zone for vehicles beginning from 1st July 2010.

Regional Information Sources

www.sheffield.gov.uk/index.asp

www.cleanairsheffield.org

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheffield

Somerset County

Status Quo:Somerset County

The county of Somerset is situated in the South West Region of England. Somerset is a county with the main towns of Taunton, Yeovil, Bridgwater and the historic city of Wells. Transport is responsible for some 32% of carbon emissions in the county. Petrol engine cars account for a majority of all new cars registered in the county. In January 2006 there were no clean vehicles in use in the Somerset area. After participating at the European funded BEST Project nearly 50 FFVs were introduced.

Fuelling Infrastructure

According to the European Environmental Atlas there are currently about 9 refuelling stations of flexifuel E85 (3 refuelling stations) and GPL (6 refuelling stations) in Somerset county. No refuelling station for biodiesel, methanol and hydrogen are listed.

Somerset County took part on the EU funded project MADEGASCAR. As a result of the activities carried out under MADEGASCAR there are a number of projects which are planned for Somerset. South Somerset District Council would like to convert their fleet of vehicles from diesel to biomethane made from food waste.

Regional Information Sources

www.somerset.gov.uk/irj/public

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerset

Westminster/London

Status Quo:Westminster/London

Westminster is an area of Central London, within the City of Westminster, England. Central London/Westminster has higher levels of air pollution than anywhere else in the United Kingdom, due to the volume and type of road traffic travelling into and through the borough on a daily basis. Therefore, the aim of Westminster City Council is to promote the use of electric vehicles with a number of initiatives. Besides the development of an electric vehicle infrastructure the users of electric vehicles get several financial incentives. In Westminster 180 electric vehicles registered with the Ecomark scheme for alternatively fuelled vehicles and 230 electric vehicles registered with Masterparks scheme.

Fuelling Infrastructure

Westminster City Council currently has 48 charging points for electric vehicles at 13 of its Masterpark car parks and is the only local authority in the United Kingdom that provides such a service. For the first time two new charging points will be placed at on street parking bays in Wellington St and Southampton St in Covent Garden.

Regional/Local Support Instruments for Clean Vehicles

  • Parking: Vehicles using gas, electricity, fuel cells and hybrid vehicles ("Eco Vehicles") are all entitled to certain parking concessions within Westminster. Westminster Council has allocated specific spaces in which only residents can park using a Resident Parking Permit and they also operate a resident parking scheme in the Westminster City Council car parks. Masterpark's "Green Card" scheme currently offers unlimited off street parking to electric vehicles for an annual administration fee of £200 for a nominated carpark including power charging.
  • London Congestion charge: See London
  • Road Tax: Vehicles that are exempt from vehicle tax still need to display a tax disc. A ‘free’ tax disc is issued that will need to be renewed each year. Electric vehicles are exempt from road tax. Vehicles run by electric will need to be taxed in the ‘electric vehicle’ tax class. The electric must come from an external source or an electric storage battery, which is not connected to any source of power when the vehicle is moving.

Regional Information Sources

www.westminster.gov.uk