Mobility Basic Figures
Source: EU energy and transport in figures - Statistical pocketbook, 2010
Following the data published by the Agence de l'environnement et de la maîtrise de l'Énergie the transport sector is greatly responsible for the increase of energy consumption in France and for the emission of pollutants and greenhouse gases. It currently accounts for 29% of these emissions compared to only 13% in 1960, with consumption by this sector nearly doubling since 1973. Today road transportation represents 80% of all domestic freight traffic and 60% of all passenger travel. The same is observed with regard to emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Transportation is a major contributor to these emissions (for example, 37% of carbon monoxide and 54% of nitrogen oxide emissions). This is also true for emissions of greenhouse gases. The transportation sector is the leading source of carbon dioxide emissions (27% of emissions of greenhouse gases in France, 35% of CO2 emissions). According to the country studies of the EU funded project ALTER-MOTIVE passenger vehicle stock in France has grown from about 12 million cars in 1970 to more than 30 million cars in 2007. Diesel cars increased their market share continuously and represent currently more than 50 % of the vehicle stock. Alternative car types are mainly LPG cars, which represent more than 80% of them.
The French position regarding natural gas vehicles is however far behind Italy, Sweden and Switzerland in terms of fleet and development of the infrastructures of distribution. In 2008, there are 13,000 natural gas vehicles: 2,071 buses, and 570 waste collection trucks and approximately 10,000 light vehicles for the majority belonging to local government agencies or large companies. After a deadly accident in 1999, new regulations (safety valve) have been implemented in France in 2000, which made much more difficult to implement LPG kits on existing cars. Older LPG cars had to be adapted, or were forbidden to enter covered parking places or tunnels. These points lead in a collapse of the number of LPG cars sold. The number of electric vehicles has increased from about 2,000 in 2000 to about 3,350 in 2008. In 2008 there are about 7,000 flexifuel vehicles registered in France (3,178 sold in this year).
The French professional organisation UTP (Union pour les transports Publics) has conducted a survey among 119 French public transport bus networks, representing more than three quarters of the market (16,000 buses among an estimated total of 20,000). 55% operating buses are considered as being “clean”. This means that they use one of the following technologies: particles filters, bio fuels, water and gasole, CNG, GPL, electricity, hybrid. In 2002, this proportion was reaching only 20%. The particle filters is the most spread out solution, probably due to the fact that it is the easiest and cheapest one to implement: 5,314 buses are equipped with filters, and 350 more run on diester. CNG solution is now considered as a mature one. It reaches a stable part of 10% of the national fleet. Nice is the only city to have stopped using CNG, but Lille confirms this option and intends to achieve the whole fleet running on CNG and bio gas. In Nantes the fleet comprises 191 CNG buses out of 334 buses. In France the GPL fleet has reached a “status quo” situation since 2002. 137 GPL buses in 2006 compared to 102 in 2002. The electric fleet is not progressing quickly.
The French Government made the introduction of electric propulsion a top priority in the coming years. The 2007 “Grenelle” Environment Round Table process on climate change encompasses a transport section. This section includes the implementation of dedicated charging infrastructures for rechargeable electric or hybrid vehicles for public authorities and individuals. In addition, the national “Electric Vehicles Plan”, launched by the French Government in October 2009, lists 14 priorities. In order to support the introduction of an electric vehicles fleet, the principle of a specific grant for the purchase of electric vehicles - unless till 2012 - has been confirmed.
The plan includes notably actions in order to
The National Electric Vehicles Plan aims at putting into service at least 100,000 “carbon-free” vehicles by 2010 and the government officially announced the objectives of 450,000 electric/hybrid vehicles by 2015, 2 million vehicles by 2020 and 4.5 millions by 2025. However, viewing at the actual figures this aims has to be judged as too ambiguous at least for the starting phase 2010 – 2015. Major impediments are missing infrastructure as well as no adequate vehicle models available on the marked. At the moment a new figure with a target volume of 100,000 vehicles until 2015 is circulated. One major instrument is the purchase/procurement of large state own utility colpanies. For the coming five years (including 2011) there is a commitment that about 20 state owned and private companies will purchase about 50,000 electro vehicles (ADP, Air France, Areva, Bouygues, EDF, Eiffage, France Telecom, GDF Suez, La Poste, RATP, SNCF, SPIE, UGAP, Veolia, Vinci.).
Recent survey shows that in France car buyers have a strong interest in electro vehicles. About 35% of the core target group for these vehicles have the aim purchasing those vehicles within the coming years. About 50% of this group is ready to pay up to 4,000 EUR more for those vehicles as for the conventional one.
According to the European Environmental Atlas there are is an extensive network of about 600 LPG refuelling stations distributed on all part of the country. According to the national legislation which puts very strong environmental regulation on the use of biodiesel for fuelling there are only in the Lion region 6 biodiesel pumps. In 2008 there were 305 flexifuel E85 pumps in France. Findings of the EU funded project BIOGAS-MAX indicate that about 105 refuelling stations in France can feed NGV vehicles. 85% of these stations are located in urban areas where the natural gas grid exists. Some cities plan to establish public charging points (so far no information available about existing public plugs) but the lion share of electricity vehicle charging should be done by owner’s infrastructure.The webpage www.lemnet.org/LEMnet_Land.asp list 210 public accessible recharging stations for electric vehicles in France distributed all around the country. The governmental aims to install about 1,250 public recharging stations until the mid of 2012. Until 2015 there sould be 1 mill recharging stations, until 2020 about 4.4 mill (with an overall investment of 4 bill. EUR). Public regulation for building large complexes are modifified in 2010 defining an obligation for building recharging point for electro vehicles.
On the webpage www.h2stations.org/ there are listed three active hydrogen refuelling stations in France; one other in Toulouse is out of operation.
Since May 2006, the car tag “écoprofil” (Type III environmental labelling, ISO TR 14025) for consumption and CO2 emission based on a collared scale is mandatory and must be affixed to each new passenger car or posted near it, so visible in all places of sale in France . The label includes seven classes of different colours (like appliances). The colours range from GREEN for cars with the lowest CO2 emissions (highest 'mpg') through the colours of the spectrum to RED for the most highly polluting vehicles (generally the lowest 'mpg'). It allows any potential buyer of automobile to be filled legibly and comparative CO2 emissions of the vehicle. The schema is used for vehicle taxing, within public procurement as well as for fiscal incentives.
France already adopted a legal framework for electric propulsion and actions can already be taken within this framework – notably by local authorities. The main current laws are as follows:
According to this, the main fiscal incentives are:
There are furthermore specific incentives towards the purchase and use of electric vehicles in the French legislation:
The French legislation for biofuels has adopted the EU Directive 2003/30/EC in 2007 through the following laws:
The use of biodiesel and PPO with high blends (higher than 5%) is limited to “captive fleets” – i.e. only the vehicles of the firms and local authorities having their own distribution system (pump and tank) can use biodiesel. In 2005, to further encourage the incorporation of biofuels in conventional fuels, a new tax on “polluting activities” (TGAP) was introduced. This tax, which notably targets oil refineries and distributors, is payable for fuels containing a too poor incorporation rate of biofuels. Since 2006, the French Government has progressively reduced the tax rebates. Since the end of 2008, the incentives for 1st generation biofuels including biodiesel are expected to be significantly reduced, if not eliminated by 2012.
A new law called "Grenelle II" (or "Round Table 2") "on the national commitment to the environment, adopted June 29, 2010 allow to experiment with congestion charging in cities over 300,000 inhabitants.
The French law implementing directives 2004/17/CE, 2004/18/CE and Decree No. 2004-15 is named “Code de Marchés publics” (Code of the Public Market). The procurement law includes Joint Procurement regulations (Article 7-9) and regulation concerning the use of environmental criteria for the contract award (Article 14). There are handbooks and guidelines for public contracting authorities for the application of green procurement procedures. Most of the green procurement procedures refer to the application of the environmental vehicle label by defining the requested environmental performance of vehicles.
With the Circular of the Prime Minister from September 2005 there were established specific environmental roles for the vehicles fleet purchased and used by governmental institutions. For the purchase or rental of cars it prescribes a limit of no more 140 g CO2 per kilometres. Exemptions of up to 199 g CO2 per kilometre are possible limited number of operational vehicles (police, gendarmerie, and customs). When the entire fleet of state will respond to this new standard, CO2 emissions have been reduced by at least 20% (over 60,000 tonnes of CO2 saved) and a fuel economy of about 20,000 TOE has been achieved (with the diesel engine
necessitated by the discharge limits). For monitoring reasons contracting authorities must keep a table of annual purchases or rentals of vehicles.
UGAP (union des groupements d’achats publics), is the only French public central purchasing organisation in the sense of public market code. Several central and regional state authorities using UGAP services for carrying out their procurements requirements so that UGAP has the factual status of a permanent joint procurement institution. In 2007 the UGAP managed 180,000 procurement cases with an overall value of about 1.1 bill EUR for 1,490 types of products for about 35,000 different clients. Approximately 32% of this amount was for the purchase of various kind vehicles (limousines, ambulances, waste collection, mini-vans, etc) used by public authorities (in 2009 almost 22,000 vehicles were purchased by UGAP). UGAP calls for tender are European ones. UGAP applies a product based system for so called “eco-responsibility”. A new internal organization A transverse responsibility "sustainable development" has been created within the purchasing department, entrusted with a function of expert buyers, managing relationships with public and private officials or interested in sustainable development. For each tender prepared by the institution, the analysis focuses on: the level of environmental requirements and / or social in the specification. It defines the technical specifications required to select a product or service. Any offer that does not comply with these requirements would be eliminated.
The weighting of the environmental criteria (and sub-criteria) is commonly 10-20% up to 40%, depending on the purpose of the contract. In its tenders UGAP foster the market penetration of new environmental standards i.e. it has anticipated the introduction of EURO V. In partnership with the City of Paris, a tendering procedure was launched for the acquisition of refuse collection vehicles running on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle). The UGAP maintains a specific internet platform for national and regional, local institution which follows public procurement schema. Within the platform there are product catalogues for various products including light vehicles (Véhicules legers), light goods/service vehicles (Véhicules utilitaires légers et aménagés) as well as police and ambulance vehicles which are characterised also concerning their detailed environmental performance. This is done based on the environmental labelling of vehicles. Trucks and busses / coaches are also listed but only highlighting the overall emission standard according to European classification.
Following an imitative of the Le Poste, a group of 20 large companies (ADP, Air France, Areva, Bouygues, EDF, Eiffage, ERDF, Orange France Telecom, GDF Suez, Suez Environment, GRT Gaz , GrDF, La Poste, RATP, SAUR, SNCF, SPIE, UGAP, Veolia and Vinci), associations of local and state officials plan to launch a joint public call for tender for building a fleet of 100,000 vehicles until 2015. Basic idea is to create a critical mass for the introducing of electric vehicles in France on large scale. The purchasing case is managed by the UGAB.
Three types of vehicles to meet the needs identified: a light commercial vehicle (van type) with a load capacity of about 3 m3; a compact two-seater with a cargo capacity of approximately 1 m3; a specific vehicle of four or five places. The vehicles will be able to reach 110 km / h maximum payload, have a range of at least 150 km, a connection to the network and ensure a standard electrical maintenance on the entire metropolitan area. For the tendering a competitive dialogue was chosen. It will focus on each lot corresponding to the three types of vehicles under the proposed acquisition. This procedure allows an exchange with each candidate on all aspects of the project. The end of the procedure should be completed by mid-2011 so as to leave, including time to evaluate the specimens that will be sought after. First vehicle deliveries are scheduled for the last half of 2011.
official webpage for Public Procurement in France presenting all kind of information and regulation on public procurement including the public procurement bulletin
webpage of the Le ministère du Développement durable which includes general information/regulation related to vehicles in France
webpage with general information on green vehicles
webpage including a wide range on different items related to clean vehicles and environmental friendly driving behaviour including a ranking of cars with regard to the CO2 emission which is also used for the eco label; the webpage also includes a calculator for vehicle tax according to the vehicle type (taxation is based on the eco labelling): the webpage also includes a decision making tool for low CO2 emission vehicles
network of regional initiatives on green procurement
webpage with a search engine with E85 refuelling stations
webpage with a list of CNG refuelling stations
webpage with a list of recharging stations for electric vehicles in France
webpage ranking cars according to their environmental performance as well as other information on green vehicles.
webpage for promoting ecologic citizenship including information on green vehicles and green mobility
webpage with car technical data base for various types including emission
webpage with car technical and commercial data base for various types including emission
webpage of the central purchasing authority also presenting information and document about the public tendering of vehicles