Mobility Basic Figures
Source: EU energy and transport in figures - Statistical pocketbook, 2010
43,094 km² (mainland)
According to a marked survey of the EU funded Project ALTERMOTIVE Denmark has together with Norway the highest registration tax on sales of new cars. Therefore, the Danish population has relatively few cars – around 33% less per inhabitant compared with Sweden and Germany. It also means that the cars are smaller than in neighbouring countries and therefore also more energy efficient. A Nordic study from 2008 described that new cars in Denmark and Norway since 1998 show a lower CO2-emission compared to Sweden and Finland.
The share of alternative fuels in passenger transport in Denmark is currently very low. While the consumption of diesel has been growing strongly in Denmark since 2002, there have been only very few experiments with energy from first generation biofuels. In May 2006, the Danish section of the fuel company Statoil introduced Bio 95, which is gasoline added 5 percent bioethanol. The product corresponds to the European gasoline standard, EN 228, which allows a mixture of bioethanol up to 5 %. The Bio 95 product is based on Brazilian sugarcanes. Cars capable of running on unleaded gasoline is capable of running Bio 95. However, Bio 95 is only available to the Danish consumers at the Statoil service stations. After the adoption in the EU of the 5.75% demand for biofuels in cars from 2010, Denmark notified to the Commission that the Danish goal was 0% - because Denmark already used a large share of biomass in its heat- and cogeneration production.
However, in 2008 the government decided that the 5.75% goal for first generation biofuels would be implemented from 2010. In 2006 the Danish Government decided to significantly boost efforts to promote the use of second-generation biofuel technologies by allocating additional financial sources for the co-financing of large-scale private development programmes. Altogether, these additional private and public development interventions are expected to total significantly more than DKK 200 million. The Danish Government has earmarked DKK 60 million in the period 2007-09 for the use of biofuels in restricted fleets of vehicles. However, the production is still very small – and the biofuels produced is mostly exported to Germany and Sweden. Therefore, the consumption of biofuels is so little in Denmark that it is statistically irrelevant.
In terms of car stock and newly registered cars, which runs on biofuels and electricity, the numbers are very small. Despite data for electro vehicles there is no statistic yet on the biofuels car stock, which is close to zero. According to finding within the EU funded project BEST there were sold 82 flexifuel E85 cars in 2008 but until April 2009 no pumps for this fuels were in operation (buyers travelling to Sweden for fuelling). According to findings of the EU funded COMPRO project the city of Copenhagen and Aarhus using buses running with CNG in public transport. The stock of electro vehicles was about 253 unitits (October 2009). Following the Bilbranchen association it is expected that the market share of electro cars could increaste to 2 – 5% until 2012, 5-8% until 2015 and 10-15% zntil 2020 (the actual stock of cars is about 2.1 vehicles).
As a consequence of an energy political agreement between the Danish government and the opposition in the Danish Parliament, electric cars and hydrogen cars are - until 2012 - free of duty in Denmark. The plans are to increase the number of electric vehicles from the current 200 to 100,000 within two years. There is a kind of Danish tradition supporting and establishing an innovative e-mobility concept within the past 25 years; according to ALTERMOTIVE country review the following most important concept can be listed:
One of the most important projects world wide promoting electro mobility started in 2009 and will end in 2012 is Edison (Edison = Electric vehicles in an Distributed am Integrated market using Sustainable energy an Open Networks). The project is partly financed by the Danish government and focuses on the cooperation of public and private research organisations, international companies and local authorities to create an intelligent infrastructure to fuel a large fleet of electro vehicles on electric energy created by wind parks. The developed technical solutions are real-life tested on the island of Bornholm. Further project details can be found under www.edison-net.dk.
The so-called Hydrogen Link network was established in 2005 by Nordic Transportpolitical Network. A Phase 1 of the project from March to October 2005 analyzed the possibilities for the building of a number of hydrogen filling stations in Jutland and how these could be connected with the hydrogen filling station network in Norway, Sweden and Northern Germany. The result of the analysis was the identification of 8 possible locations for hydrogen demonstration filling stations in Jutland. Phase 1 also created contact to more than 100 companies and organizations in Denmark and the surrounding countries.
Hydrogen Link today is working towards becoming a national network for research, development & demonstration of hydrogen & fuel cell technologies for transportation with the purpose of advancing a Danish infrastructure of hydrogen filling stations and a widespread use of fuel cell vehicles, beginning with niche transportation and in long term road transportation. It is the aim for Hydrogen Link to be structured beneath the Danish Energy Authority's Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Platform as the main activity within transportation. Hydrogen Link is part of the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership, SHHP. SHHP is a Scandinavian co-operation that consists of the three national hydrogen infrastructure networks in Norway (HyNor), Sweden (Hyfuture) and Denmark (Hydrogen Link). SHHP it to gather and align the networks in the three countries in a joint Scandinavian application for an EU Lighthouse demonstration project for hydrogen transport around 2010.
The geo-information system European Environmental Atlas from the EEA lists 14 LPG refuelling stations, no biogas (also verified by other sources), no biodiesel refuelling stations and no flexifuel E85 refuelling stations for road vehicles in Denmark. In the report of the European Expert Group for Future Transport Fuels from January 2011 Denmark is presented as negative example how the absence of refuelling possibilities in a particular European country will present a major problem for the transit traffic. Denmark, without a single methane refuelling station, is thus a barrier for methane vehicles travelling between Germany and Sweden, both strongly expanding natural gas and biomethane use as transport fuel.
The geo-information system “Hydrogen Filling Stations Worldwide” list about 10 hydrogen refuelling stations for road vehicles (for filling trucks) mostly located on the west coast/Jutland. The stations are mostly related to the “Hydrogen Link Denmark” project. The company Better Place plans to develop a nationwide infrastructure for electric vehicle with up to 20,000 service/charging points all over the country, i.e. for the Copenhagen area there are planned 50 of these service/charging points.
The following description is made mainly on basis of a country report provided within the EU funded ALTERMOTIVE project.
Until 2007 the Danish registration tax was solely based on the price of the car (paid as a one-off payment related to the purchase of a car). Denmark has through changes of the registration tax and the car owners tax tried to influence the drivers to buy cars which are energy efficient – with low CO2 emission. From 2000 the registration tax was reduced for the most fuel efficient cars. But this only applied to very few energy efficient cars – especially the VW Lupo. For all other cars differentiation according to fuel consumption/CO2 was not introduced until 2007. In 2007, tax changes were adopted so that part of the registration tax was based on the fuel consumption, meaning that smaller and more energy efficient cars turned out cheaper while the heavier and less energy efficient cars (e.g. four-wheels driving cars) were heavily taxed (in average Denmark has the highest car registration tax world wide). This had an immediate effect i.e. the Danish car buyers, to a greater extent than in the recent past, bought smaller and less energy-consuming cars. Also the taxes were changed in order to reduce the emission of particles. Particle filters were exempted from tax in 2007, but this was not enough to make all car importers equip their new cars with filter. In March 2009, the tax on diesel cars with filter was further reduced. Electric cars have a quasi exemption from the registration tax.
In Denmark, car owners pay a registration tax plus 25% of the value of the car in VAT. VAT is also added to the price of gasoline and diesel. VAT from gasoline and diesel amounts to 0,6 billion EUR.
Weight tax/green owner tax. In 1997 the weight tax for newly registered passenger cars was changed into a “green owner tax”, which is differentiated in accordance with the fuel efficiency of the car. For cars registered before that date road tax system remains in force. The owners tax for a car with high fuel consumption is therefore at present 35 times as expensive as the most fuel efficient car. For gasoline vehicles that run more than 20 km per litre the owner tax is about 35 EUR (half year) and for diesel vehicles that run more than 28.1 km per litre about 50 EUR (half year).
For cars registered before that date road tax system remains in force. The owners tax for a car with high fuel consumption is therefore at present 35 times as expensive as the most fuel efficient car. Electro vehicles are exempted from green owner tax.
In mid 2009 the Danish Tax Authority (Folketing) has adapted Bill L205 on green transformation of car taxation, which means changes in the law on charging for fuel for some cars (ACT law). According to this the following tax measures were undertaken:
With effect from 1 January 2005 the Danish Government exempted biofuels from the CO2 tax imposed on the use of ordinary petrol and diesel for transport. Anyhow, until 2009 biofuels in fact have been more heavily taxed, as the tax was based on volume, and biofuels deliver less energy per litre than gasoline and diesel. But in a tax agreement between the government and its supporting party in March 2009 the tax was changed to a tax per energy unit.
In Denmark, electric vehicles have been exempted from registration tax and car owners tax until 2012 – extension of this period is under discussion. Tax exemption for hydrogen cars and plug–in hybrid cars are being debated. In accordance with an agreement, entered between the Danish government and the opposition in parliament in February 2008, the appropriation for a pilot scheme for subsidies on electric cars is 1.34 m EUR yearly in 2008 – 2009. It is decided that the appropriation will be 5 m in the following years (2010 – 2012).
In Denmark there is a scrap premium when returning a car/van which has been registered in Denmark after 1st July 2000. For cars that are unsubscribed after 1st July 2002 the scrap allowance of kr.1,750 for cars deregistered in the period 1st July 2000 to 30th June 2002 scrap allowance is kr.1,500.
Under the Energy Policy Act of the 21st February 2008 a grant scheme for experiments with electric cars have been agreed. The grant scheme for experiments with electric cars runs by the DEA (Dansih Energy Agency).
Since 2008 there is a funding programme with a budged of about 35 mill dkr (4.7 mill EUR) supporting pilot projects for he use of electro vehicles on municipal level and in the privet economy. The financing of selected projects is until 2012. In the first call the project authority Energistyrelsen has granted about 10.4 mill dkr to about 17 different projects. The majority of those projects comprises the purchase of electro vehicles (about 44 vehicles are purchased within the project framework) as well as the installation of recharging infrastructure (according to the funding conditions until a max. amount of funding two-third of the investment cost can be funded).
Denmark has introduced a fuel economy label, which shows the car's fuel and energy category based on a colored scale. The colours range from GREEN for cars with the lowest CO2 emissions through the colours of the spectrum to RED for the most highly polluting vehicles. The fuel economy label is i.e. used for calculating the vehicle tax and for defining awarded criteria for public procurement. It is also used for defining driving permissions and bans within Low Emission Zones.
The Danish Government has decided that the proportion of biofuel for transport which complies with the EU sustainability criteria will be increased to 5.75% of total sales of petrol and diesel for transport on Danish territory calculated on energy content as from 1 January 2010. To reach this target, all filling stations selling petrol and diesel for transport will receive directions demanding them to sell at least 5.75% as from 1 January 2010.
In Denmark several cities have introduced Low Emission Zones (Miljøzone) for Heavy Duty vehicles (buses and lorries) over 3.5 tons applied 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. From 1 July 2010 all of these vehicles must have Euro 4 standard or have a certified particulate filter otherwise there are banned for accessing the LEZ area. Danish vehicles need to have an LEZ sticker in the windscreen. Foreign vehicles need to carry the information stated below to prove they meet the emissions standards. The particle filter must reduce the exhaust of particles by at least 80%, calculated according to the applicable EU methods.
A multi-criteria analysis of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Significant and Ecofys from January 2009 for the years 2007/08 shows that 42% of all public procurement volume in Denmark can be considered as green. In the transport sector (vehicle purchase) the average level of green procurement on the total procurement value (indicator 1) was calculated with about 10% but the share of single contracts comprising green criteria on the overall number of contracts (indicator 2) was about 25%.
The Danish public procurement regulations (Cirkulære om udbud og udlicitering af statslige drifts- og anlægsopgaver) defines in §13 2. and §14 2. the obligation to include environmental criteria in the specification of supplies as well as for the selection of the supplier. Specific regulation for the purchase of vehicle does not exist. The Danish government and the Danish local authorities have agreed upon political guidelines, which ask municipalities to purchase green. In 2001 the implementation of this agreement will be reviewed and it is planned to turn the guidelines into binding laws, should there be insufficient voluntary compliance among local administrations. In principle, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Energy Agency is responsible for green purchase. The Danish EPA has published approximately 50 product-specific guidelines since December 1996, giving advice on which environmental questions to ask and which requirements to set when purchasing a particular product or service. The guidelines, which are purely voluntary, cover areas ranging from transport to textiles and are accompanied by background material in separate publications. The guidelines are currently being updated and turned into an internet based tool.
Most of the public procurement of central governmental as well as regional/local institutions is realised by using a central National Procurement Ltd (SKI). SKI is a public shopping centre, which took its present form in 1994, when the State Purchasing was merged with Local Product Dissemination. Both institutions filled out basically the same purpose: to use the procurement budget as a lever to secure volume discounts on the most ordinary goods and services to the public. SKI offers contract frameworks which aims to allow providers and public purchasers acting together in a way that benefits both parties. SKI is a limited company owned by the state (55 per cent of the shares) and the Local Government Denmark (45 per cent.). Their income is based on a share of the turnover of the framework contracts on average less than one percent. However, SKI is a non-profit corporation. When SKI offers a Framework Agreement on cars, they asked for a series of environmental requirements which the principal went on vehicle CO2 emissions, i.e. car's contribution to climate effects. All requirements have been set in dialogue with a reference group composed of users of the agreement including the Ministry of Environment. SKI `s new Framework Agreement on cars bring environmental requirements in front along with requirements for safety and reasonable economy. The agreement set out four categories of vehicles, covering the need for transportation in the city and in terrain. The supply established the following requirements for CO2 emissions and safety:
It was also called for a broad range that diesel cars with factory fitted particle filter. Based on the reference group participants' needs, the just completed tender won by Fiat, Hyundai, Kia, Peugeot, Suzuki and Volkswagen, which therefore will provide environmentally friendly service cars for the state, municipalities, regions and parastatal companies. All cars have also undergone a so-called car-crash test, which are obtained at least four stars by the independent organization "Euro NCAP Crash Test." SKI expects that customers will continue to buy into the 300 million dollar cars a year by SKI.
Apart from the green joint procurement carried out by SKI there are several further examples for Denmark:
webpage of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) with general information on environmental friendly behaviour
information of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency on car recycling/waste disposing
information of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency on information of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency on fiscal incentives for clean vehicles
information of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency with information of Environmental Zones in Denmark
webpage by the Danish Traffic Board. You can find a complete list on passenger cars on the Danish market since 1997. You can find the energy class of the cars on the Danish market since 1997
webpage of the Danish Tax Authority describing the change of the car registration act
webpage of the Danish Energy Agency with information on funding schemas for electricity vehicles
webpage Danish National Procurement Ltd. with information/downloads on public car procurement (www.netindkoeb.dk is the online catalogue of SKI)
webpage of Better Place Denmark commercializing electro mobility in Denmark
webpage of the Danish Electric cars Committee (Dansk Elbilkommitee) providing a broad overview about electro mobility.
webpage with car statistics on basis of an individual log in
webpage of the Hydrogen Link network informing about the project status and progress
energy agreement between the Danish government and members of the Danish Parliament
public procurement regulations
webpage of the research project edison