Mobility Basic Figures
Source: EU energy and transport in figures - Statistical pocketbook, 2010
Following figures are presented by the National Organization on Energy Efficiency (IDAE) in 2004, showing that in Spain transport absorbed about 40% of final energy consumption. In the same year, the road represented 80% of total transport fuel consumption. Since 1985, consumption in this sector has increased by 2.5 times. The energy consumption of private cars in Spain represents about 50% of the total consumption of road transport. The remaining percentage is primarily related to freight traffic (about 47%) and with a minimum participation, public transport of passengers (3%). In 2008 the transport sector was responsible for 38% of final energy consumption. The road transport remains highly dependent on petroleum products (98%) and also represents more than a quarter of total CO2 emissions in Spain.
According to the marked research done by the EU funded project ALTER-MOTIVE the passenger vehicles total stock in Spain has increased from 6.83 millions in 1980 to 16.3 millions in 2007. During the last decade the share of diesel cars has continually increased towards some 40% in 2008. Whereas the stock of alternative vehicles is very small, the penetration of gasoline cars started to decline in 2000. Owe to several efforts made by regions and local government partly financed by the EU a reasonable fleet of about 4,500 Flexifuel vehicles in Spain were established (2009 figures were taken from the EU funded project BEST which has supported the market penetration of bio-ethanol in public transport i.e. in Madrid and in the Basque Country). In 2008 1,546 units were sold. Spain is the third biggest bio-ethanol producer in EU. According to data collection within the EU funded project MADEGASCAR for 2009 in Spain there is a stock of 762 biogas busses used in public transport and 545 biogas heavy duty vehicles. Publications related to the national masterplan on e-mobility in Spain indicates that in 2008 and 2009 the number of electric vehicles was marginal (only several dozen units) but in 2010 about 2,500 units are supposed to be purchased from various public authorities for pilot test projects. Within the market analysis of the EU funded project COMPRO it was examinated that bio-diesel is used by 6% of the bus fleet in Spain. The list of cities where CNG buses are used are San Sebastian, Sevilla, Almeria, Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Getafe, Bilbao and Barcelona. Further reliable data about the registrations or use of alternative vehicles in Spain are currently not available.
With the integrated strategy promoting electro mobility ("Estrategia Integral para el Impulso del Vehículo Eléctrico") from April 2010 and the related action plan ("Plan de Acción") from November 2010 the Spanish government has defined its priority for the electro mobility in the near future (overall programme name is Movele). The aim of the strategy is to have on Spanish roads about 250,000 electro and plug in hybrid vehicles until 2014 (until 2012 about 70,000); 85% in large public or company fleets and about 15% in private individuals ownership. It is planed that about 145 Spanish cities with more than 50,000 inhabitance will create an e-mobility environment ("Ciudades con Movilidad eléctrica, CME") The action plan converted the overall strategically aims in concrete policy measures. The overall budget for realising the strategy was fixed with 2.9 bill EUR between 2011 and 2015. Movele is managed and coordinated by the Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving of Energy within a broad group of companies, institutions and individuals. Most initiatives promoting e-mobility in Spain partly related to the Movele project were undertaken by various regions and local administrations, i.e.:
The campaign “E-driving” (Econducción) wants to contribute to lower energy consumption through a change of the drivers’ behaviour. The “E-driving” campaign was created with three main fields to work on: firstly, sensitivity towards a more sustainable mobility. Secondly, an increase of using public transport and thirdly, the promotion of energy-efficient driving. The recommendations are concentrated on the selection of the most adequate transport mode, on a very rational use of the car and on energy-efficient driving. The practical measures were coordinated by administrations, automobile companies and drivers. Madrid and Barcelona were the first cities implemented the campaign. The messages were displayed on the urban buses and on posters in the street. In order to make drivers sensible, a high presence of the key messages in the urban areas is wanted. At the same time a website (www.econduccion.es) was published. This website includes a description of the campaign itself, recommendations on the acquisition of ecological vehicles, documentation on automobile and environmental issues as well as interactive information on sustainable mobility. The campaign has been extended to other Spanish cities: Granada, Malaga, La Coruña and El Ferrol.
The geo-information system www.biodieselspain.com/mapa_biogasolineras.php shows 296 refuelling stations for bio-diesel / Etanol in Spain, distributed all around the country (the database search tool on www.energias-renovables.com/paginas/Combustible.asp shows total gasolineras bio-diesel: 495 and Total gasolineras bio-ethanoll: 18). The geo-information system www.metanoauto.com/modules.php displays four bio-gas refuelling stations for cars currently opened in Spain. According to data collection within the EU funded project MADEGASCAR for 2009 in Spain there 545 biogas refilling stations for busses used in public transport. The European funded project BEST accounts about 15 E85 Flexifuel refuelling stations in Spain, whereof 10 are located in the Basque Country and 5 in the Madrid region. In the Basque Country the local distributor EVE is aiming for 60 pumps, most selling both bio-diesel and bio-ethanol in the near future. The geo-information geoportal.mityc.es/hidrocarburos/eess/ provides an actual overview of the Spanish vehicle refuelling infrastructure also for alternative fuels.
The geo-information system www.h2stations.org lists 7 hydrogen refuelling stations in Spain, whereof three are currently in operation (Sanlúcar la Mayor in Sevilla related to the Herkules project, one situated in the Walqa Technology Park in Huescaand, one in Zaragoza build for the Expo 2008), one is in the planning stadium (Don Qhyxote H2 Station in Albacete planned to be open in 31.12.2010) and three are out of operation.
According to the national e-mobility master plan Movele it is planned to establish 62,000 recharging points for private homes, 263,000 fleet points in car parks, 12,150 in public car parks and 6,200 on public roads until 2014. From 2011 onwards it also provides a installation of a fast-loading point for every 400 vehicle in order to set up 160 stations. The Spanish company Endesa announces that it will install recharging points for electric vehicles in the national service station network of Cepsa company. The charging points are installed as part of the Movele Plan. Movele foresees also the installation of 546 recharging points for these vehicles in Madrid (280), Barcelona (191) and Sevilla (75). Furthermore several Spanish regions and local authorities have individual plans for establishing networks of public recharging points for electro vehicles. Currently, the Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving of Energy (IDEA) is working on developing a software application on the Google-Earth, which will locate all charging points for electric vehicles in Spain (tp://www.idae.es/index.php/mod.pags/mem.detalle/id.508). The webpage www.lemnet.org/LEMnet_Land.asp list 51 public accessible recharging stations for electro vehicles in Spain.
The City of Madrid operates its own biogas plant and filling station for the refuelling of a municipal vehicle fleet of 450 busses and 500 waste collection vehicles.
There is a VAT of 16% on all types of fuels and vehicles. The registration tax on the net car price is based on CO2 emission. Rates are classified as follows:
The tax on ownership (circulation tax) does not include direct elements related to the environmental performance. For passenger cars it is calculated on basis of the horsepower, for commercial vehicles on basis of the payload. Furthermore, various regional governments grant tax incentives for the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles including electric and hybrid vehicles:
There is an excise tax of 0.360 EUR/litre on gasoline and 0.330 EUR/litre for diesel. Natural gas is exempted from excise tax. Electricity is taxed with 4.864% (special tax) and 6% (turnover tax). Furthermore bio-ethanol is exempt from fuel tax. This is because Spain has exempted all alcohol used for bio fuels until 31 December 2012 (Article 6(5) of Law 53/2002 dated 30 December 2002 on Tax, Administrative and Social Measures).
The so called Plan 2000E was launched by the Spanish government in May 2009. Its aim is stimulating the motor industry. The government has set aside 100m EUR for a 12 month period to boost sales and manufacturing in the car industry. Purchaser of new cars emitting less than 149 g/km CO2 receive an incentive of 2,000 EUR (50% of which is paid by the car manufacture) if they have a car that is 10 years old and more (or has a mileage exceeding 250,000 km) scrapped simultaneously. 500 EUR of the grant comes from the government, 1,000 EUR from the manufacturer and 500 EUR from the Spanish automobile club CCAA. At the beginning of February 2010 the project listed 268,793 car sales. Almost half of the purchases were for vehicles emitting less than 120g/km CO2 and 49% of scrapped vehicles had more than 15 years age. The government has extended the project until the end of 2010 with a budget of additional 40m EUR (to finance the purchase of 80,000 additional vehicles in the same conditions as the current plan).
In 2010 the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade has announced a plan for stimulating the purchase of electric vehicles with a budget of 8m EUR. The aid will range between 750 and 20,000 EUR depending on the type of vehicle (motorcycle, car, bus or truck). The fund will cover between 15% and 20% of the price of cars depending on their energy efficiency. To qualify for this aid buyers must contact a seller or choose any of the vehicles stated in the catalogue published on the website of the Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (www.idae.es). The aid is part of the project Movele electrical mobility.
In 2009 the Ministry of Development signed an agreement with the Official Credit Institute (ICO) to implement the funding line of Bus Plan VIVE 2010. The plan aims to encourage the replacement of vehicles ten years and older with newer, safer and cleaner vehicles that are more energy efficient and accessible for people with reduced mobility. Since September 2009, when the first operation was performed credit, 271 operations under this Plan have been carried out, involving an investment of 48.4m EUR with a contribution of nearly 32 mill EUR from the Ministry of Development.
Purchasers of a new car emitting maximum 140 g/km and costing maximum 30,000 EUR can obtain an interest-free loan up to 10,000 EUR if they have a car that is 10 years old and more (or has a mileage exceeding 250,000 km) scrapped simultaneously.
Spain has introduced a so-called energy classification system of vehicles. The system is based on the European Directive 1999/94 CE and its adoption of the national legislation (RD 837/2002). Article 3 of this Royal Decree establishes the compulsory affixing of a label to official fuel consumption and CO2 emissions clearly visible in each new passenger car model. According to that, there is a classification in seven classes (from A to G) related to the relative consumption compared to other vehicles of the same category (the category is set up by size in terms of area). There is also information about CO2 emissions.
With the national plan for sustainable transport from April 2009 it is foreseen that Low Emission Zones (LEZ) can be created in each of the Autonomous Communities. However, so far LEZ have not been established in Spain yet.
The basic legal framework for bio fuels is described by the following legislation:
According to this the Spanish legislation for bio fuels has adopted the EU Directive 2003/30/EC since 2003 by the Law 1700/2003, which sets the specifications of petrol, diesel, fuel oil and liquefied petroleum gases and use of bio fuels. In July 2007 it was defined what products shall be classified as bio fuels and annual targets were established (1,9% for 2008, 3,4% for 2009, 5,19% for 2010).
The actual law on public contracts and procurements (law 30/2007) defines that environmental criteria should be explicitly mentioned in the process of the purchase of works, goods and services, i.e. in the technical specification (Article 101). Article 190 is specifically focusing on the competence of the authority of state property to operate as a single and central procurement entity of the state (Sistema de Adquisición Centralizada (S.A.C.)). Based on this a central procurement platform was established (www.contrataciondelestado.es) including also actual tenders for vehicles. The service currently includes 2,200 institutions, stating 350 operating companies that have about 70,000 products, grouped in 15 catagories: office furniture, reproduction services, computers as well as vehicles among others and perform more than 21,500 annual contracts amounting of more than 800 million EUR. For mostly all product groups they define environmental criteria that apply in the tendering process, for vehicles however not yet. When reviewing vehicle procurement cases it can be stated that references to environmental criteria are made in only a few cases in a very general way, i.e. “The equipment offered shall comply with all environmental legislation, especially regarding noise emissions and gases (El equipo ofertado deberá cumplir toda la legislación ambiental vigente, en especial la referente a límites de emisiones sonoras y de gases).” However, the technical specification or the award criteria usually does include references to environmental criteria/standards. Also the vehicles displayed in the online product catalogue are not classified according to their energy consumption and emission level. Apart of the central governmental purchasing system also Catalonia, Galicia, Canary Islands have their own central purchasing organisation.
The EU funded project COMPRO describes the joint procurement of hydrogen buses (engine with internal combustion) involving public transport of seven Spanish cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Màlaga, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, San Sebastiàn and Pamplona). Each participant organisation has agreed on to buy one or two buses. As the manufacture MAN was the only one building this technology there was no competition over the choice of the manufacturer. In terms of organisation, each operator signed an agreement of principle to purchase the buses and the management of the consortium was delegated to one person appointed for the task for the cost of which was shared by the partners. As for the technical specifications, the operators had agreed on to keep it as simple as possible and to give up some characteristics related to their network (customization of the vehicles for example) as there were only a few vehicles elected that were “experimental”. However, the project didn’t go as far as the actual definition of the specifications as MAN quickly notified that the partners were no longer willing to produce more hydrogen buses, which put an end to the cooperation.
webpage of the Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine including information on the general Governmental strategy for clean vehicles
central governmental portal for public procurement including tenders for the purchase of vehicles
national organization on energy efficiency (IDAE) website with a vehicle database regarding energy and environmental efficiency including a vehicle ranking tool according to the Spanish energy labelling system for vehicles
information campaign on environmental friendly vehicle mobility funded by the RACC Automobile Club including the so-called “ecotest”-database showing the environmental impact of various types of cars
geo-information system of the Ministry of Finance, Tourisms and Commerce displaying the lion-share of public and private Spanish vehicles refuelling infrastructure
webpage displaying various information around the implementation of bio-diesel in road transport in Spain, i.e. a geo-information tool for finding refuelling stations, a list of heavy good vehicles certified for bio-diesel
website with detailed information and news on Clean vehicles including a database of refuelling stations
Spanish web portal on green road mobility
web-blog of the SAREC project, an initiative proposed eco-sustainable rental of electric cars as a transport system Euskadi public
Spanish webpage of the EU funded project BEST for the promotion of bio-ethanol and bio-diesel in road transport
webpage with recharging stations for electro vehicles in Spain
REAL DECRETO 837/2002, de 2 de agosto, por el que se regula la información relativa al consumo de combustible y a las emisiones de CO2 de los turismos nuevos que se pongan a la venta o se ofrezcan en arrendamiento financiero en territorio español.
ORDEN PRE/29/2004, de 15 de enero, por la que se modifica el Anexo III del Real Decreto 837/2002, de 2 de agosto, por el que se regula la información relativa al consumo de combustible y a las emisiones de CO2 de los turismos nuevos que se pongan a la venta o se ofrezcan en arrendamiento financiero en territorio español.
REAL DECRETO-LEY 13/2006, de 29 de diciembre, por el que se establecen medidas urgentes en relación con el programa PREVER para la modernización del parque de vehículos automóviles, el incremento de la seguridad vial y la defensa y protección del medio ambiente.
Ficha de producto para la Contratación pública ecológica (CPE)
LEY 30/2007, de 30 de octubre, de Contratos del Sector Público.
LEY 34/2007, de 15 de noviembre, de calidad del aire y protección de la atmósfera.
Real Decreto-ley 7/2009, de 22 de mayo, de concesión de un crédito extraordinario al Presupuesto del Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio, para la ayuda a la adquisición de vehículos y la renovación del parque de vehículos Plan 2000 E, por importe de 100.000.000 de euros.
Real Decreto 898/2009, de 22 de mayo, por el que se regula la concesión directa de subvenciones para la adquisición de vehículos, Plan 2000 E de apoyo a la renovación del parque de vehículos.