Mobility Basic Figures
Source: EU energy and transport in figures - Statistical pocketbook, 2010
Following the market review done within the EU funded project ALTERMOTIVE the passenger vehicle stock in Italy has grown from about 10 m cars in 1970 to about 35.7 mill cars in 2007. Diesel cars increased their market share continuously. In 2007 the market share of diesel cars was about 34%. Furthermore, in 2007 there were 4.4 mill trucks, 154,000 tractors and 96,000 buses/coaches. With more than 10 m units Italy is the country with the highest number. of motorbikes and mopeds in the EU. LPG/natural gas cars had an important development in the past decades. During the 1970s and 1980s the increase was modest. More recently, with by-power cars and the dramatic increase of gasoline/diesel prices, they register a new success. This is also due to incentives and favourable local rules concerning circulation in the inner cities. Following the EU funded project PROCURA there are currently about 400,000 natural gas vehicles in Italy (in 2007 there were sold nearly 100.000 new natural gas vehicles in Italy). New passenger cars sold as methane vehicles in 2009 reached 7 % of all new registrations. In addiction, about 50 Italian towns run 2.100 Natural Gas urban buses and around 800 NG vehicles for municipal services and urban goods distribution. According to the EU funded project BEST in 2009 there were an overall fleet of 150 E85 Flexifuel vehicles; in 2008 there were sold 96 units.
Electric vehicles have still not very widespread in Italy. Although specific financial contributions for the purchase of electric cars and a growing supply less than 60 electric cars have been sold in Italy in 2009. For the full year 2008 108 electric vehicles were newly registered. There are currently estimated a fleet of 1,200 to 10,000 electric cars and hybrid vehicles. Actual market research leads the declining interest on individual e-mobility not only to the relatively high cost, low autonomy of the vehicles (on average 70 km), but also on mentality back. So far primarily local authorities bought electric vehicles. About half of the acquired electric cars in recent years are not used owe to the high operative costs.
On the other hand there are some important initiatives promoting e-mobility in Italy i.e.:
A survey of the Italian Ministry of Transport from 2007 has shown that in about 1,421 regions there are circulating about 47,900 buses in public transport, mostly owned by public limited companies or private operators. A survey of ASSTRA shows that there are mainly diesel-powered buses (92.99%), followed by CNG buses (4.17%). Electric buses have a share of 1.2% and LPG or hybrid buses of less than 1%
The EU funded project BIOSIRE worked out that Italy produced 470 mill tons of biodiesel in 2007 (8% of EU production, third country behind Germany and France). However, in contradiction to what’s happening in whole EU, production and consumption of biodiesel in Italy is decreasing especially because of the lack of clear and motivating laws and because of increasing prices of vegetable oils.
The geo-information system European Environmental Atlas lists about 2,290 LPG refuelling stations (the webpage ttp://new.eurogasauto.egm.it/ list about 2400) and 97 biogas refuelling stations (mainly in north Italy) in Italy. According to the IEE funded project GasHighWay CNG refuelling stations have grown from 370 at the end of 2001 to more than 700 in 2009. Italy is the country in Europe with the highest capillated network of autogas refuelling stations. An overview of the actual situation of national methane filling stations, updated for April 2010, is summarized in the following table:
The geo-information system www.h2stations.org lists 18 hydrogen refuelling stations in Italy whereof only 5 are currently in operation (AUT TANGENZIALE OVEST Milano, Mantova related to the ZERO REGION Project, experimental hydrogen refilling station in Tuscany – ILT, Multi-Fuel Station in Tuscany and Magliana Nord). In July 2006, the first hydrogen fuel station was set up by Eni in Grecciano (Tuscany Region, on the clearway Florence-Pisa-Livorno). The facility is the first station in the world which supplies hydrogen from renewable sources. The hydrogen is produced by 20 kW photovoltaic panels and three 20 kW wind turbines. In 2006/2007 in Mantova/Lombardia there were set up two hydrogen refuelling stations in conjunction with the EU funded project “Zeroregion” that run until 2008. The project consisted of construction and demonstration of hydrogen infrastructure in two European regions for supplying fuel cell passenger cars. The project aimed at developing and demonstrating zero emission road transport systems in normal daily use for the European cities.
According to the EU funded project BEST there is one refuelling station of E85 Flexifuel in Italy. In the project market research it is further set out that the public transport bus company ATC of La Spezia operates its own bioethanol filling station. According to the EU funded project SUGRE there is one biodiesel refuelling station in operation in Tortona (Piedmont Region).
Currently, the energy supplier Enel builds a network of more than 400 public recharging plugs for electric cars in the Rom region. The energy supplier A2A in 2010 builds a network of 100 recharging plugs in the Milan region witch is planned to be extended to 400 in the Lombardy region in the following years. The webpage www.lemnet.org/LEMnet_Land.asp lists about 20 public accessible recharging stations for electric vehicles in Itlay, mostly in the City of Rome.
Italy charges the vehicle registration tax at a nominal rate. The registration taxation system with its various elements to be paid are IPT (car insurance premium tax), PRA (registration fee for Pubblico Registro Automobilistico), and MCTC does not include direct environmental incentive. The annual tax on ownership (circulation tax) for passenger cars depends on engine power (kW) as well as the emission level measured in EURO standards and for commercial vehicles on payload, weight and axes. A tax incentive of 800 EUR and a two year exemption from annual circulation tax is granted for the purchase of a new passenger car complying with the Euro 4 or Euro 5 exhaust emissions standards and emitting not more than 140 g of CO2/km, provided a Euro 0 or Euro 1 car which is scrapped simultaneously. For the purchase of electro vehicles there is granted a five years exclusion from the vehicle circulation tax and afterwards a tax reduction of about 75%. In additional to this the regions Lombardia and Piomont offer a lifetime circulation tax exemption for new registered electro vehicles. Also it is possible that the vehicle assurance can be reduced of about 50%.
Bologna was the first city in Italy to implement in 2006 a road pricing policy based on the support of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). Currently, the road pricing policy will be refined and updated in order to react to main traffic indicators and to include environmental criteria. In Milan, a similar traffic charge program in called "Ecopass" began on a trial basis on January 2, 2008. It exempts vehicles compliant with the Euro3 and Euro4 emission standards or higher, as well as several alternative fuel vehicles. Residents within the restricted zone, called ZTL (Italian: Zone a Traffico Limitato), may purchase a discounted annual pass. Although the program is operationally similar to existing congestion pricing schemes, its main objective is to reduce air pollution from vehicle emissions rather than relieve traffic congestion. The program was extended also for 2010.
There is an excise duty on fuels of 0.564 EUR/litres for gasoline and 0.423 EUR/litres for diesel. Following the market research of the EU funded project BEST at present, there is no tax exemption for bioethanol in Italy and fuel costs are approximately 70% higher as a result. At the moment tax value is the same as for diesel. Taken into account that the specific power of ethanol is much lower (50-60 % lower) the tax level prevents any competition between the fuels. In Italy there is a certain volume of renewable fuel that can get tax subsidies every year. In 2000 a reduced excise tax (0.2892 EUR/litres) for cleaner fuels was established such as bioethanol, ETBE and biofuel additives to unleaded gasoline up to 0.1 m tons per year to be used as transportation fuel during a three-year period expiring on 30 June 2005. Prior to that, biodiesel was granted full exemption from excise for a three-year period, which expired on 30 June 2004 within a limit of 0.3 m tons per year. The law of 30 December 2004, no. 311 grants biodiesel full exemption from excise tax, within a limit of 0.2 m tons per year, over a five-year period starting on 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2010.
In 2009 an incentive programme of paying 1,500 EUR to buyers of new cars with EURO 5 standard contemporary scarring an older car with EURO 0 or I standard was established. The programme also comprised an even stronger incentive for the purchase of LPG/natural gas cars and hybrid cars between 1,500 and 3,500 EUR without the obligation of scrapping an older car. The engine modification from gasoline to LPG/natural gas was funded with 650 EUR. For commercial heavy duty vehicles a similar system was established with a 4,000 EUR premium for LPG/natural gas vehicles and 2,500 EUR for conventional vehicles (Euro 4, Euro 5 standard) also when contemporary scrapping an older vehicle. The premium system has strongly stimulated the purchase of smaller and medium sized LPG/natural gas cars. Their market share has increased from 7.1% in 2008 towards some 21.8% in 2009 (in terms of sold units). In autumn 2009 the Italian Government decided to not prolong the program for 2010.
Source: IEE Project GasHighWay
In addiction to incentives for vehicles, some Italian regions have enacted special incentives for the developing of the CNG filling stations infrastructure:
There is a central governmental funding programme for e-mobility with a volume of 180 m EUR which was set up at the beginning of 2009 (part of the "Industria 2015" programme). There are funded Italian based small and medium sized companies developing innovations in the sector of electro vehicles. The different Italian regions also contribute to the programme. Some regional funding initatives for e-mobility are:
There are many LEZs in Italy, with differing standards and time periods, i.e. Napoli (affected all; minimum Euro IV), Rome (affected only motorcycles, minimum Euro 1 standard), PiemonterRegion (affected vehicles under 3,5 tonnes, including motorcycles; standards varies from City to City). The majority of cities with LEZ have set a minimum standard of EURO 4 and the use of particulate filters for diesel cars. For more information see www.lowemissionzones.eu/countries-mainmenu-147/italy-mainmenu-81.
The law No. 128 of 2005 as adoption of Directive 2003/30/EC Set up national targets for biofuel consumption as a percentage of the total transport fossil fuels, to be measured in terms of energy content: 1% by 2005 and 2.5% by 2010. These values were quite lower than the ones set by biofuels directive and an infringement procedure has been launched against Italy by the European Commission. The Law No. 81 from 2006 defines modified target values which are compliant with the EU directive: 1% by December 2005; 2.5% by December 2008; 5.75% by December 2010.
The EU funded project “buy smart” provides expertise and cost free consultancy on Green Public Procurement also for clean vehicles in Italy (see also www.buy-smart.info/italian/artikel174). Among others the following explanations are made by using expertise and information from “buy smart”.
In Italy it is estimated that the value of public procurements represents about 17% of the GDP. The national legislation on public procurement was modified with the Law No 163 of 2006 now including explicit references to environmental aspects to be applied in public procurement (in particular, Article 2 provides the opportunity to "make the principle of affordability, to criteria inspired by social needs , environmental protection and health and promoting sustainable development " and Article 68 about the "Specifications" introducing the obligation to define the technical specifications " Whenever possible, " ... " to take into account accessibility criteria for people with disabilities, to design for all users, environmental protection . "). According to art. 83 it is possible to apply environmental criteria in the awarding phase, under the conditions that:
A National Action Plan on Green Public Procurement was set into force with Interministerial Decree no. 135 from April 2007. The purpose of the National Action Plan is to promote the dissemination of the GPP to public bodies and facilitate the necessary conditions so that the GPP can achieve its full potential as an instrument for improving the environment. One of the most important actions was the definition of priority categories of goods, services and works that are purchased by the public sector and to set out "minimum environmental criteria" for them. Category K of the action plan explicitly refers to the purchase of “transport vehicles and services as well as sustainable mobility systems. So far however, no minimum environmental criteria was defined for the relevant category (is one of the last product categories in which the process of definition even has not started).
In Italy Consip is the central purchasing organisation; besides this, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont and Lombardy regions have set up their own central purchasing bodies. “Consip S.p.A. is a public stock company owned by the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) that operates on behalf of the State. With Art 36 of the Law 448 of 1999 (financial law 2000) the Ministry for Economy and Finance stipulates, through Consip framework agreements with selected enterprises, which are committed to accept the supply orders from the purchasing agency up to the fulfilling of the specific framework agreement. Central and local procurement agents are obliged to procure goods and services through the framework agreements while other procurement agents could adhere to the Consip initiative, or as alternative must use the same price/quality parameters for the purchases of similar goods and services. Following the modified Italian procurement law the functions of a central purchasing authority are, titled by Art. 3319 as “Public contracts and framework agreements stipulated by central purchasing authorities” that states:
“[…] contracting authorities can purchase works, services and supplies through a central purchasing body and creating associations and consortia”. According to the present article both common procurement through central purchasing bodies and joint procurement through collaborative agreement are allowed. In principle Consip as “common procurement organisation” applies environmental criteria and the role undertaken in the GPP action plan. Green” criteria can be added as threshold requirements, when the contract is awarded to the most economic advantageous offer. In the case a “score” system is used, with specific “points” assigned to the environmental quality, only products fulfilling the specific green characteristics (i.e.: energy consumption, end of life collection, recycle and disposal) are awarded with the points. In 2007 Consip signed conventions dedicated to car renting or purchasing referring to low impact vehicles, such as cars with double fuel supply (petrol/methane and petrol/GPL). However, after revision the vehicle awards by Consip between 2008 and 2010 it can be stated that environmental criteria are not explicitly applied when awarding contracts for the purchase and rental of vehicles. All contracts were awarded according to the most economically advantageous tender following economic and technical criteria (economic and technical criteria are explicitly named as award criteria).
There are a number of E-procurement regional platforms. In principle all procurement cases on this platforms taken into account GPP principles.
Again explicit environmental criteria for the vehicle purchase are missing:
In 2006 the Campania Region, through the EAV (Ente Autonomo Volturno), a fully owned company, decided to start a procurement process for new buses with a total investment of 290 mill EUR which was the biggest single bus purchasing in Europe. Campania has been to rationalize the purchasing process, aggregating the demand, lowering bus prices through an economy of scale and promoting the renewal of the regional bus fleet.
In February 2009 a trans joint procurement case between the Region Emilia Romania and Veneto was set up and 56 vehicles were jointly purchased up to a cost of 335,000 EUR. There was a sustainable discount (this joint procurement case is listed as good practise within the EU funded project COMPRO).
In 1996, seven of the partners in the ZEUS project decided to form a procurement consortium in order to jointly procure electric vehicles. The cities were Athens and Amaroussion, Greece; Copenhagen, Denmark; Coventry and the London Boroughs of Camden, Southwark and Sutton, UK; Palermo, Italy, and Stockholm, Sweden. The aim was to purchase one passenger car and one transporter. In June 1997, 9 tenders were received, whereof 4 were from France. Several tenders had restrictions and could not fulfil all the requirements. In the end 2 passenger cars were selected (Fiat 600 Elettra, Peugeot 106 Electric (UK only)) and one van (Citroën Berlingo Electric). In total, the consortium bought 278 vehicles. Prices were reduced by 25-50 %. Maintenance and spare part service filled the requirements, and there was an option for third party to buy more than 150 vehicles.
“The Green Public Procurement Information Network” lead by the Province of Cremona, will last three years, starting in February 2009 and is partly funded by the EU LIFE programme. It aims at overcoming obstacles that limit the diffusion of GPP, to support the reduction of environmental impacts of purchased goods/services and the implementation of the National Action Plans for GPP. A specific project goal is to increase the awareness about the GPP role within the strategies for sustainable consumption and production;
webpage of the Italian Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of Natural Resources with detailed information on Green Public Procurement
webpage of the GPP net supporting a network for GPP on regional and local level in Italy
webpage of the Italian central procurement company Consip with information on tenders (also vehicles) and Green Public Procurement
webpage of the Italian Ministry of Finance with information on vehicle taxation.
calculator of the annual circulation tax for vehicles
Italian version of the internet-portal on Green Public Procurement of the European funded project Buy Smart
Italian version of the top ten internet service among others ranking vehicles according to their environmental performance.
webpage of the information service on cars “quattroruote” including a car data base with price, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions
Italian webpage of the EU funded project BEST presenting information on the introducing of E85 flexifuel vehicles in the Italian market
webpage describing the Low Emission Zones regulation for each region in Italy
webpage that lists LPG refuelling stations in Italy
webpage with recharging stations for electric vehicles in Italy
webpage of the ecopass project of the Municipal of Milan
Trasporti – Scheda prodotto per acquisti verdi della pubblica amministrazione