Mobility Basic Figures
Source: EU energy and transport in figures - Statistical pocketbook, 2010
According to findings of the EU funded project ALTERMOTIVE the total energy consumption of passenger transport in Czech Republic has grown continuously from about 80 PJ in 1995 to 133 PJ in 2007. The most important alternative fuel in Czech Republic is natural gas. Since 2004 an increase of liquid biofuels, especially biodiesel is observable. The passenger vehicles total stock in Czech Republic has increased from 2.8 millions in 1993 to 4.3 millions in 2007. The stock of alternative vehicles (nearly all LPG driven) is experiencing a downward trend. According to data collection within the EU funded project MADEGASCAR for 2009 in Czech Republic there are about 1,000 biogas cars but no busses used in public transport. The stock of diesel cars has continuously increased over the whole period. In 2007 the share of diesel cars was 21%. According to the Czech Statistical Office, there are about 730 electric trolley-buses used in public transport in urban areas. The figure is stable during the last 10 years.
In the Czech Republic there is a certain tradition of individual electric mobility. In the 1960th first examination was made in the development of electric cars. Nowadays, the amount of electric vehicles is small with 182 units calculated in March 2010 (further 750 solar scooters). However, reasonable efforts are underway to stimulate electro mobility i.e. the Czech energy utility company CEZ is starting with the e-mobility project “futuremotion“ in Prague and is starting in 2010 with a fleet testing of up to 100 electric Peugeot cars. The first phase of the project focussing on Prague was started in the 2nd quarter of 2009 and the second phase including the city of Ostrava has commenced in 2010. The project also includes the development of a network of a public recharging point. The project has a budget of about 20m EUR until 2012. The Czech manufacturer of electro-scooter Akumoto foresees an increasing market for more than 1,000 units within 2010.
The City of Prague has opened in January 2010 the first public bus line using electro vehicles (minibus line using vehicles of BredaMenarini). The different efforts are guidelined and supported by the governmental energy concept 2004 – 2050, which is updated every year and currently includes considerations for the implementation of instruments stimulating the electro mobility. There are planned investments in public infrastructure (recharging points), direct subsidies, fiscal incentives for the supply and operation of recharging system and for the purchase of electro vehicles etc. The considerations published, which still not have legal characters, defines a target of increasing fuel consumption in road transport between 2008 and 2015 of 2-5% for traditional fossil fuels, 5-8% of biodiesel, 4-6% of CNG as well as 8-12% of electric energy. After 2030 there is the vision that the demand for fossil fuels decreases and will be fully substituted by electro mobility.
According to official statistics in June 2010 there are totally 6,551 refuelling stations for road vehicles in the Czech Republic whereof 3,649 sell fuels to the public. Refuelling stations with high biofuel content are 91 for diesel blend (B30), 72 for biodiesel (B100) and 12 for E85 flexifuel. About 411 refuelling stations sell LPG (distributed in a country-wide network). The IEE funded project GasHighWay sets out in its country report for the Czech Republic that the number of CNG refuelling stations have increased from 9 in 2005 in 28 in 2010 for cars (not for busses according the EU funded project MADEGASCAR). There are some strategic plans (mainly by private investors) for further development of gas refueling infrastructure. Paradoxically the most of stations are located out of highways and motorways. The geo-information system lpg.cernosice.cz/index.php shows the network of LPG stations in the Czech Republic, the geo-information system www.metanoauto.com/modules.php list the refuelling stations for biogas.
The geo-information system www.h2stations.org lists one refuelling facility related to hydrogen in Neratovice (Veolia transport bus yard) serving a H2 bus from Skoda Electric. The filling station has been supplied by Linde Gas and was officially opened on November 5th 2009. Vehicles can be filled with gaseous hydrogen at 350 bar pressure. The TriHyBus will soon commence operation on a city line in Neratovice near Prague, Czech Republic.
It was published that until the end of 2010 the first four public recharging stations for electric vehicles will be ready for operation in Prague (part of the Futur/E/Motion pilot project of CEZ).
In the Czech Republic there is a uniform VAT of 19% on the acquisition of vehicles. There is no registration tax for passenger cars. The circulation tax (motor vehicle tax) for private cars depends both on engine’s cylinder capacity and for commercial vehicles on weight and number of axes. Hence, the Czech vehicle tax system does not include any direct environmental element so far. It is expected, however, a gradual approach to the Western European countries and the CO2 tax on automobiles and bonus scheme are likely to be implemented in the coming years.
An exemption from road tax which applies to cars used for business purposes only is granted to electric vehicles, hybrite, LPG/CNG-vehicles as well as vehicles using a blend with high biofuel content. Purchasers of a new vehicle will be eligible for a tax reduction of 48% in the first three years after the purchase and of 40% in the following three years. Public traffic vehicles are generally exempt from road tax.
There is an excise duty on fuel of 0.483 EUR/litre for unleaded petrol and 0.406 EUR/litre for diesel. On the excise duty on diesel a rebate of 0,125 EUR/litre is granted, if it contains at least 31% biodiesel from rapeseed methylester. The excise duty on LPG/CNG is 0.07992 EUR/litre and for electricity 1.0471 EUR/MWh.
In the country report for Czech Republic prepared within the IEE funded project GasHighWay it is set out that indirect incentives for the development of CNG and infrastructure of CNG pumping (resolution of the government of the Czech Republic of 11th May 2005 No. 563) is provided, which
The State Environmental Fund is granted for measures to protect and improve the environment. The aid is provided through grants, loans or possibly a contribution to the payment of interest. Conditions for granting the relevant periods are set by the Directive of the Ministry of Environment on the provision of funds from the State Environmental Fund. The program started in January 2010 in support of the management system for car wrecks through a network of approved processing establishments with a preferred material or re-use and security of the non-removal of debris. The program is designed for two areas:
For this funding in 2010 there is a budget of 8 million EUR.
A funding of the purchase of environmental friendly vehicles for public transport (85% co-financing) can be received from the Interreg IV programme in 2007 – 2013 under the priority 2 in the Czech Republic.
Concerning the use of biofuels in transport as a substitute for fossil fuels, the Government Resolution No 1080 of 20 September 2006 provides for a minimum quantity of biofuels in the range of motor-vehicle fuels without any subsidies or support from the state. On the basis of this resolution, amendments were made to the following legislation: Act No 86/2002 Coll. on clean air protection. The amendment to this act concerns the setting of a minimum amount of biofuels. Any person bringing motor-vehicle petrol or diesel fuel into free tax circulation in the Czech Republic must ensure that they contain at least a minimum proportion of biofuels. The amendment introduces the following minimum values of biofuels blended with fuel: - as of 1 September 2007, 2% of the total amount of motor-vehicle diesel fuel in 2010 3.27%.
The Czech Republic capital Prague already had an access restriction zone in the inner city centre for heavy vehicles and buses over 3.5 tonnes for many years. Surrounding this area is a larger zone where access is restricted for vehicles over 6 tonnes. With the aid of the EU funded project Trendsetter, in 2003 Prague aimed to curb negative impacts of traffic on the environment by almost doubling this larger 6 tons limit zone (maintaining the 3.5 tonnes limit zone within the city centre area). The differentiation in weight limits between zones was introduced to ensure widespread support for scheme implementation. With this measure Prague decreased carbon dioxide emission of 1,650 tonnes per year as well as emission of PM 10, NOx and noise.
Unleaded fuels are banned in Czech Republic since 2001. A maximum of 10 gr/litre sulphur is allowed for diesel and petrol.
The EU funded project “buy smart” provides expertise and cost free consultancy on Green Public Procurement also for clean vehicles in the Czech Republic (see also www.buy-smart.info/czech/vitejte-na-strankach-projektu-buy-smart). Among others the following explanations are made by using expertise and information from “buy smart”,
According to public statistics total public Czech procurement volume in 2009 was about 12 bill EUR (9788) thereof 2.1 bill for supplies with a reasonable share for vehicle purchase.
Generally, the public procurement in Czech Republic is regulated by the Act No. 137/2006, and related decrees. When launching public tender, the act allows setting technical requirements including impacts on the environment. It also allows for setting such requirements by referring to the requirements of the national, European or international eco- labelling systems. However, it must also be possible to prove fulfilment of such requirements by other appropriate means, such as technical documentation of the producer. The latest amendment to Act No. 137/2006 Coll. on Public Contracts entered into effect in September 2010. According to §46 (4) the contracting entity is entitled to establish technical specifications in terms of performance or functional requirements that may include environmental characteristics.
Especially § 46a belong to the vehicle procurement defining that in case of public supply contracts, the subject-matter of which are constituted by the vehicles of (N1, N2, N3, M1, M2 and M3), the contracting entity shall lay down specific technical specifications, which take account of energy and ecological operational impacts. The impact shall be understood as energy consumption, CO2 emissions and NOx, NMHC and particulate matter emissions. The manner of setting out specific technical specifications shall be laid down by implementing legal regulation. It is understood that this amendment of the public procurement law ensures that the legislation is in fully compliance with the EU Clean Vehicle Directive. So far however, the process of defining adequate environmental criteria for the vehicle purchase as well as applying them is still not concluded.
Comprehensive information on public contracts and concessions is available at the Portal of Public Procurement and Concessions, whose web address is www.portal-vz.cz.
The study “Costs and Benefits of Green Public Procurement in Europe” explicitly shows for Czech Republic that the environmental oriented public procurement of buses and cars do nor lead to substantially higher costs, but rather to slightly lower costs, although this depends mainly on the tax policy of the Member States. On basis of a total lifetime-cost-calculation it was shown that the procurement of standard buses with a “green” configuration in the Czech Republic without the internalisation of positive external effects applies to only 0.4% higher total costs, for green minibuses to only 0.9% higher total costs, for green subcompact and compact cars to 1.7% higher total costs, for green a medium-sized car to 0.1% lower total costs and for a green light duty vehicle to 0.7% higher total costs.
webpage of the Czech Ministry of Environment with information on funding for clean vehicles
webpage of the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade with Statistics on refuelling stations and biofuel production
webpage of the Office for the Protection of Competition responsible for the monitoring of public procurement
Czech public procurement portal
webpage of the Czech environmental fund with detailed programme description for the car wrecking premium
webpage of the Czech statistical office with transport data and figures
webpage with a geo-information system related to LPG refuelling in the country.
webpage on electro mobility in Czech language
webpage informing about EU funding in the Czech Republic
Czech version of the internet-portal on Green Public Procurement of the European funded project Buy Smart
Produktový list pro zadávání ekologických veřejných zakázek (GPP)